Cirmap - CIrcular economy via customisable furniture with Recycled MAterials for public Places


Project Summary

In North West Europe, about 65 Mt of Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFA) are generated yearly from the crushing of Concrete Construction and Demolition Wastes and are disposed in landfills or in banks. In the meantime, 54 Mt of marine sands are extracted in zones where natural aggregate resources are missing, threatening fragile marine spaces. Reusing RFA in concrete would save natural resources.

However, no market exists for RFA owing to rigorous construction standards. RFA is a local resource, with large variability, which is not suited to mass production needing regular materials. But it could be used at a smaller scale, for the manufacture of products needing neither to comply with rigorous construction standards nor to possess high performances. About 5 Mt of RFA could be recycled into concrete for the manufacture of Urban, Memorial or Garden (UMG) furniture, being the starting point of a circular economy loop.

Traditional precast concrete cannot be used for small scale production because of the high share of moulds in the global cost (50 to 80%). However, concrete 3D Printing (3DP) allows manufacturing customized pieces that could be shown by customers as a banner of their identity. UMG furniture are always located in difficult to access zones, reducing their weight by shape optimization and printing them onsite would be easier. Moreover, online control of 3D Printing could be used to compensate materials variability, providing an efficient tool for the valorisation of these resources.

Cirmap will provide a new Mixture Proportioning Method (MPM) for the design of 3DP mortars with RFA and a new Design Methodology for Customized Shapes (DMCS). A new Master Control Command (MCC) for concrete 3DP will be implemented for the equipment of 3DP machines, and an integrated mobile 3D printing unit will be developed for onsite 3D printing of UMG furniture. A Cirmap-network will also be created for lobby and dissemination, leading to a new market for the reuse of RFA. 5 Local Public Authorities in North West Europe will provide public places that will be equipped with 3DP customized furniture.

Project Partners

Lead partner

Organisation Address Email Website
Association pour la Recherche et le Développement des Méthodes et Processus Industriels 60 boulevard Saint-Michel
Paris
75272
France
david.bulteel@imt-nord-europe.fr www.armines.net
Name Contact Name Email Country
Manchester Metropolitan University Craig Banks c.banks@mmu.ac.uk United Kingdom
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern Christian Glock christian.glock@bauing.uni-kl.de Germany
SAS NEO ECO DEVELOPPEMENT Sophie Heymans sheymans@neo-eco.fr France
Université de Liège Luc Courard Luc.Courard@uliege.be Belgium
Université d’Orléans REMOND Sébastien sébastien.remond@univ-orleans.fr France
Heberger GmbH Gerhard Becker gerhard.becker@heberger.com Germany
VICAT Laury Barnes-Davin laury.barnes-davin@vicat.fr France
Gemeente Almere Johan Luiks jluiks@almere.nl Netherlands
Stadt Pirmasens Michael Maas buergermeister@pirmasens.de Germany
Université de Lille Rochdi Merzouki rochdi.merzouki@univ-lille.fr France

Events


Public meeting in IMT Nord Europe

, IMT Nord Europe Rue Guglielmo Marconi, 59650 Villeneuve-d’Ascq

We are pleased to invite you to the 3rd and last public meeting of the EU funded Interreg NWE project CIRMAP on the design and manufacture of customized 3D printed urban concrete furniture using recycled fine aggregate. This event aims at presenting the final results obtained in the framework of this project. The event is free of charge and will be held in English. We are looking forward to welcoming you in Lille on October 5th 2023.
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3D BUILD 2023 Summer school – 2nd edition July 3rd to 14th – Lille, France

, Lille, France - ENSAPL_IMT Nord Europe

“Advanced Computational Design & Fabrication: Concrete Robotic 3D Printing in Architecture” The (pre-)doctoral summer school 3D Build 2023 is a high-standard 60-hour training programme focusing on the fundamental aspects of architecture, architectural technology and engineering, in line with top-tier research centres and leading experts in the field. Broaden your international experience! Co-organised by the National School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture of Lille, the Institut Mines-Télécom Nord Europe and the International Academy, it will offer you top-tier scientific lectures taught in English by eminent researchers in the field in the form of a workshop. You will also experience cultural visits and events as well as a supervised research project assessed by an oral defence. Challenge your scientific potential! As a research-oriented programme, the summer school is dedicated to students willing to network into their PhD or postdoc in France. The participants should have a good English level, an excellent academic background in the fields of architecture or civil engineering and preferably a basic knowledge of Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. Building your future! ECTS: 5 credits Registration deadline: June 7th #Keywords Additive manufacturing, robotic fabrication, computational design, complex geometries, parametric design, mixture proportioning, recycled materials. More details (programme, speakers, application, fees, comfort pack): https://www.international-academy.fr/3d-build 3d-build@international-academy.fr
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Public meeting in Manchester - March 2023

, Business School - Oxford Road, Manchester, M15 6BH

We are pleased to invite you to the 2nd public meeting of the CIRMAP project, an Interreg NWE-funded project focused on the design and manufacture of customised 3D printed concrete urban furniture using recycled fine aggregates. The event will be held on 9th March 2023 and hosted by Manchester Metropolitan University (UK). Key results to date will be shared by project partners. Designs for the street furniture will also be presented and Manchester Met will be unveiling one prototype 3D concrete printed street furniture designed by one of their students. During the day there will be a tour of the facilities and a concrete 3D print demonstration using the UK formula with recycled fine aggregates. The event will conclude with an advisory board meeting and all attendees are invited to discuss achievements, challenges, and long-term outcomes from the project. This in-person event is free to attend and will be held in English. For more information, please contact Nick Hurst, Manchester Met Project Manager for CIRMAP, n.hurst@mmu.ac.uk.
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The 4th edition of the French-speaking international conference on new materials

, National School of Architecture in Montpellier

The 4th edition of the French-speaking international conference on new materials took place at the National School of Architecture in Montpellier on November 16th and 17th. The conference addressed three themes: development and use of new building materials, structures durability and envelope durability. Both numerical and experimental research were presented. The ArGEnCo department (Architecture, Geology, Environment & Constructions) of the University of Liège presented a poster on CIRMAP project explaining life cycle assesment of 3D printed furniture using fine recycled aggregates.
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2 nd workshop to test 3D printing with 100% recycled fine aggregates

, University of Liège - University of Lille

During the second workshop, the students chose to develop concepts based on metaphorical ideas: a mobius strip and organic growth clusters. Much of their effort was focused on developing clear computational logics that would allow their concepts to be implemented in a variety of locations. During their 2 printing sessions at Polytech Lille and the CSTC, they explored the limits of what could be done in terms of overlapping during the extrusion process as well as gain a better idea of what could be feasible for local slopes in their geometry and the effects/parameters/possibilities of nonplanar printing.
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1st workshop to test 3D printing with 100% recycled fine aggregates

, University of Liège

During this 1st workshop, students worked first on concepts/ideas and design. They printed 3D small-scale plastic prototypes. Then they had one day of printing tests. The first indicator to verify was the imprimability of shapes. The second indicator to verify was the mortar formulations by adjusting the amount of water. The use of a climatic chamber allows to test printing performance depending on temperature and humidity. increases. These problems can be solved by changing the printing flow or the nozzle speed. In total about 7-8 shapes were tested. This workshop demonstrated promising results but difficulties still remain when the height or the eccentricity of shapes increases. These problems can be solved by changing the printing flow or the nozzle speed.
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The CIRMAP Network

In the frame of the Cirmap project, a network is being created in order to gather all the potential stakeholders of the future industrial field that is intended to be created. Entering the Cirmap Network is free and will allow you to get in touch with the latest results of the project. You will be invited to join the Advisory Board of the project in order to share your views and interact with partners, sub partners and associate partners.

Whether you are a private company working on concrete manufacture, production of materials, design, 3D printing machines …, a local public authority interested in new developments in the field of recycling and design, a laboratory, a university … you are welcome to join the network.

 

 

How to join the CIRMAP Network

Simply send your request by email to David BULTEEL (david.bulteel@imt-lille-douai.fr) specifying:


• Your Name, Position, Institution, and your contact details


• The field of activity of your institution


• What is of interest for you in the Cirmap
project

Abstract of the CIRMAP Project

Abstract of the CIRMAP Project Cirmap will provide a new Mixture Proportioning Method (MPM) for the design of 3DP mortars with RFA and a new Design Methodology for Customized Shapes (DMCS). A new Master Control Command (MCC) for concrete 3DP will be implemented for the equipment of 3DP machines, and an integrated mobile 3D printing unit will be developed for onsite 3D printing of UMG furniture. A Cirmap-network will also be created for lobby and dissemination, leading to a new market for the reuse of RFA. 5 Local Public Authorities in North West Europe will provide public places that will be equipped with 3DP customized furniture. Project objectives: CIRMAP aims at finding new opportunities for the valorisation of Recycled Concrete Fine Aggregate through 3D printing of customized shapes. P Total budget : € 6.98 Million EU funding : € 4.19 Million Duration: 36 months (April 2020 – March 2023)

First pilot scale 3D printing of Interreg NWE CIRMAP's project

The first pilot scale 3D printing, within the scope of Interreg NWE CIRMAP, was successfully achieved in May 2021 at IMT Lille Douai (France)! This first 3D printing campaign was jointly led by two CIRMAP partners: ARMINES and Université d’Orléans. The cementitious ink used for printing was developed in the laboratory and contains 100% recycled sand coming from Belgium. The printed shape consisted of a 28 cm height square, and shows the good printability of the ink, as well as the good surface aspect of the mortar at the fresh state and at the hardened state. These promising results will allow to print more complex shapes in the future, suitable for urban, memorial and garden furniture uses.

Second pilot scale 3D printing of Interreg NWE CIRMAP's project

The second pilot scale 3D printing, within the scope of Interreg NWE CIRMAP, was successfully achieved in June 2021 at IMT Lille Douai (France)! This second 3D printing campaign was jointly led by two project partners: ARMINES and ULiège. The cementitious ink used for printing was developed in the laboratory and contains 100% recycled sand coming from Belgium. The pre-saturation conditions of the recycled sand were changed and the blending sequence used was simplified in comparison to the first 3D printing campaign led in May 2021. The printed shapes consisted of a 34 layers height cylinder and a sinuous shape, which will be cut to obtain mortar specimens. These specimens will be used to perform durability and mechanical assessments. These results show that a simplified mortar fabrication protocol still allows to print complex shapes which will be adapted for urban, memorial and garden furniture uses.

Third pilot-scale 3D printing of Interreg NWE CIRMAP's project

In October 2021, CIRMAP carried out a third pilot-scale 3D printing session at ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe (France) in the scope of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. The operation was a success! This third 3D printing campaign was jointly led by two project partners: ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe and UOrléans. For this session, a cementitious ink was formulated using 100% recycled sand from Germany. The printed shape consisted of a 40-layer height cylinder. These results show that the formulations developed in the laboratory allow the printing of various shapes which will be adapted to urban, memorial and garden furniture uses.

Interreg NWE CIRMAP fourth pilot-scale 3D printing session

In March 2022, CIRMAP carried out a fourth pilot-scale 3D printing session at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe laboratory (France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session, the cementitious ink used was formulated with 100% German recycled sand, and successfully printed the last letter of "IMT". This impression allows to close the printing of the 3 letters that compose "IMT" Nord Europe, laboratory where different formulations have been developed for the CIRMAP project.

Successful pilot scale 3D printing for CIRMAP in April 2022 - Letter A

In April 2022, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe laboratory (France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session, the cementitious ink used was formulated with 100% Dutch recycled sand, and successfully printed the letter of "A" of "CIRMAP".

Successful pilot scale 3D printing for CIRMAP in June 2022 - Letter C

In June 2022, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe laboratory (France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session, the cementitious ink used was formulated with 100% French recycled sand, and successfully printed the letter "C" of "CIRMAP".

Successful pilot scale 3D printing for CIRMAP in July 2022

In July 2022, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe laboratory (Douai, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session, the cementitious ink used was formulated with a german recycled sand, HEBERGER, and successfully printed frames intended for mechanical testing by the german partner « TU Kaiserslautern ».

Developing formulations to valorize recycled concrete sand in eco-materials and eco-products: here is the objective of the project Interreg North-West Europe CIRMAP!

After several months of research and experimentation conducted by a European team of academics and industrialists, including Neo-Eco, the results are finally here. With all the recycled sands of each European country involved in the project, we have succeeded in : 🔸Substitute 100% of the raw materials by recycled sands in the formulations 🔸Controlling the water absorption of these sands 🔸3D printing this new ecological concrete. 3D printing tests have been carried out and are a success. We can thus imagine many applications such as: urban furniture, coverings, products of original design shape, prefabricated products, assembly products, insulations, customization products (for example in gardening), etc... If you are interested in specific formulations or the creation of 3D printed cementitious eco-products, please contact Sophie Heymans, our R&D manager, member of the CIRMAP team (sheymans@neo-eco.fr). This project is supported by the Interreg North-West Europe program, which promotes transnational cooperation between private and public actors, in order to develop ecological and economic solutions with strong ambitions in terms of innovation, sustainability and cohesion.

Aggregates Life Cycle 1. How does demolition work

Demolition for recycling construction waste

In Wallonia, production of inert demolition waste is around 7 million tonnes per year (Plan Wallon Déchets - Ressource, 2018), which represents approximately 2 tonnes of waste per inhabitant per year! In order to be able to recycle this waste, it is important to act at the source, as soon as buildings are demolished.

The first step is to draw up an inventory of different waste streams to be disposed of separately. The inventory consists of listing all waste released during demolition as well as their quantity. Currently, the production of an inventory is not a legal obligation, but it remains an essential tool that allows better waste planning management: number of containers, treatment channels, distance to go for the evacuation, …

Inventory helps to identify different flows:

- Inert waste: concrete, bricks and tiles, ceramics and tiles, untarred asphalt. Today, this waste can no longer be landfilled and must be recovered. A part can be reused and the rest will be recycled in the form of aggregates. Recycled aggregates have multiple applications: earthworks, foundations, sub-foundations and new concrete.


- Non-hazardous non-inert waste: wood, metals, glass, insulation, plastics, plaster, paper, textiles. These materials can also be recycled if properly sorted. Their sorting is unfortunately often limited to high-value materials such as metals.

- Hazardous waste: asbestos, tar, heavy metals, etc. They require decontamination of the building before demolition and they are disposed of separately and stored under specific conditions.

 

Material

Treatment

Wood

Untreated wood (pallets, crates, etc.)

Particle board recycling

 

Weakly treated (beams, frames, etc.)

Energy recovery

Treaties (railway)

Dangerous -> disposed of separately

Metals (steel beams, zinc gutters, etc.)

Sorting on site and reused or recycled

Flat glasses (windows)

 

Generally included in inerts.

Recyclable (glass wool, container glass, etc.) if the frames are dismantled.

Insulators

 

Energy recovery or landfill.

Reusable if properly sorted

Plastics (PE pipes, PVC, etc.)

 

Energy recovery

Recyclable (water bottles, trash bags, paint cans, etc.) if sorted appropriately.

Gypsum (plaster)

 

Dump

Reusable if properly sorted

 

Then comes actual demolition. There are different methods of demolition which are chosen according to location, environment (urban or rural), volume and composition of building to be demolished:

• Manual demolition: building is knocked down starting with its upper parts. The demolition is done gradually, from top to bottom. This method is used when objective is to reduce building height without demolishing the foundations, or if one seeks to make a partial restoration rather than a reconstruction.
• Mechanical demolition: this is done using a hydraulic mechanical shovel and is ideal for demolishing load-bearing concrete walls. The bucket acts as a demolisher but can also load skip with the waste produced.
• Demolition with explosives: it is not often practiced and requires specific know-how.

Once the building is demolished, it is necessary to sort different flows identified during inventory. Sorting can be manual or via sort lines.

After sorting, the waste is evacuated to recycling centers where it is treated and marketed as secondary resources.

Vidéo : Aggregates Life Cycle 1. How does demolition work

Aggregates Lif Cycle 2.What is a recycling center

What is a recycling centre ?

A recycling center generally offers several services : recovery and consolidation of excavated soil, inert construction waste recycling and recycled products sale.

When we speak of inert waste, we mean any waste that does not decompose, does not burn and does not produce any physical or chemical reaction. When we talk about construction and demolition waste, inert waste includes brick, tiles, tiles, glass, earth and stones, bituminous and concrete.

Inert waste recycling is an obligation in the Walloon Region. Waste is sorted directly on site and then transported to approved recycling centres. They can come from buildings deconstruction, road surfaces, etc.

Inert waste treatment includes several stages that begin directly on site and continue in the recycling center:

Selective sorting of waste

A first selective sorting of waste is done directly on site. This sorting is extremely important for the smooth running of the following steps. Indeed, it allows more efficient recycling and the use of the recycled product in higher performance applications. It allows, for example, the use of concrete waste as aggregates for new concrete prdocution where unsorted waste will be used as backfill material.

Reception, control and storage in a recycling center

Upon arrival at the recycling centre, waste is weighed and identified. Non-inert and hazardous waste such as hydrocarbons containing tar or asbestos are detected beforehand and prohibited from entering. For others, they are stored on different piles depending on their origin, hence the importance of sorting on site! There are generally 3 main categories : mixed, concrete and hydrocarbon. These categories are generally dealt with separately.

  • Concrete: Concrete waste comes from deconstruction of buildings or civil engineering infrastructure (concrete or reinforced concrete).
  • Mixed : Mixed waste comes from buildings construction/renovation/deconstruction (bricks/blocks/tiles).
  • Hydrocarbon: Hydrocarbon waste comes from civil engineering infrastructure deconstruction (road surfaces, etc.), car parks demolition, etc.

Treatment and sorting of undesirables

Waste is then transformed into secondary material by passing different steps :

  • Pre-scalping is a preliminary operation whose purpose is to eliminate soil potentially present in raw waste. It is carried out using a sieve:
  • Crushing consists of grinding materials to reduce their dimensions.
  • Screening is the operation of sorting different elements produced during crushing according to their dimensions. It therefore makes it possible to establish different categories of materials according to their application: sand, gravel for concrete, gravel for backfill.

During these stages, unwanted waste (wood, paper, green waste, metals, etc.) is removed using different methods: manual sorting tables, blowers/suction, electromagnets, flotation/washing.

Quality and environmental control

Recycled aggregates production is governed by a quality management system (FPC) which certifies their compliance with European product standards. Aggregates are subject to regular sampling for quality control.

As part of the new legislation "Exit from waste status", recycled aggregates placed on the market as a product must be CE2+ certified. CE mark indicates that the product meets European requirements for safety, health and environmental protection. All natural or recycled aggregates placed on the market in applications covered by a harmonized standard must bear this marking.

Technical characteristics and marketing

Once produced, recycled aggregates are stored by type (mixed, concrete, hydrocarbon) and by grain size. They will be marketed for applications according to their characteristics and grain sizes.

Vidéo : Aggregates Lif Cycle 2.What is a recycling center

Successful pilot scale 3D printing for CIRMAP in May 2023.

In May 2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe laboratory (Douai, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session, the cementitious ink used was formulated with nickbrookes, an English recycled sand, and successfully printed the last letter from CIRMAP «P». We now have all the CIRMAP letters printed with different recycled sand each.

Successful pilot scale preliminary printing session for CIRMAP in May 2023

In May 2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D preliminary printing session at ENSAPL (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the corresponding recycled sands, the German (Left picture) and French (Right picture) urban furniture prototypes were successfully printed.

Successful pilot scale printing session for CIRMAP on the 26-27/06/2023

On the 26th and 27th of June 2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at Polytech Lille (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the Dutch recycled sand "Cirwin", the seven different parts of the furniture prototype were successfully printed.

Successful pilot scale printing session for CIRMAP on the 22/06/2023.

On 22/06/2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at Polytech Lille (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the german recycled sand "Heberger", five urban furniture prototypes were successfully printed.

Successful pilot scale printing session for CIRMAP on the 19-20-23/06/2023.

On 19-20-23/06/2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at Polytech Lille (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the french recycled sand "Helfaut", three of the french urban furniture prototypes were successfully printed.

Successful pilot scale printing session for CIRMAP on the 29-30/06/2023

On the 29th and 30th of June 2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at Polytech Lille (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the belgian recycled sand "Tradecowall", the urban furniture prototype composed of 11 different pieces was successfully printed.

Successful printing session in the framework of the 3D Build 2023 summer school in July 2023

On the 11th – 12th of July 2023, ENSAPL, in collaboration with ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe, carried out a pilot-scale printing session at ENSAPL (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of the 3D Build 2023 summer school. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the recycled french sand, different challenging prototypes were successfully printed

Successful pilot scale printing session for CIRMAP on the 14th of September 2023.

On the 14th of September 2023, CIRMAP carried out a pilot-scale 3D printing session at ENSAPL Lille (Villeneuve-D’ascq, France) in the framework of Interreg NWE CIRMAP. For this session and with the cementitious ink containing the Helfaut french RFA, Vicat cement and Chryso superplasticizer, a 1m-prototype was successfully printed.

Upscalled printing with 100% recycled agregates - june 2023

Upscalled printing with 100% recycled agregates - june 2023

Workflow Implementation for Automatic Detection of Filament Deviation in 3D Robotic Printing Process

Workflow Implementation for Automatic Detection of Filament Deviation in 3D Robotic Printing Process

2 workshops to test 3D printing with 100% recycled fine aggregates

From september 5th to 11th and from september 28th to october 2nd, CIRMAP project held 2 workshops with architecture students from universities of Lille, Kaisersleutern and Liège. The aim of those workshops was to experiment 3D printing with 100% fine aggregates in order to test shapes faisability and printing mortars formulation at a small-scale. CIRMAP objective is to make cimentitious inks in order to provide 5 public places with pilot 3D printed customized furniture. Five partner countries will receive these furnitures printed with their own recycled sand. These worskhops were also the opportunity to test recycled sand from several countries. During the first workshop, students worked first on concepts/ideas and design. They printed 3D small-scale plastic prototypes. Then they had one day of printing tests. The first indicator to verify was the imprimability of shapes. The second indicator to verify was the mortar formulations by adjusting the amount of water. The use of a climatic chamber allows to test printing performance depending on temperature and humidity. In total about 7-8 shapes were tested. This workshop demonstrated promising results but difficulties still remain when the height or the eccentricity of shapes increases. These problems can be solved by changing the printing flow or the nozzle speed. During the second workshop, the students chose to develop concepts based on metaphorical ideas: a mobius strip and organic growth clusters. Much of their effort was focused on developing clear computational logics that would allow their concepts to be implemented in a variety of locations. During their 2 printing sessions at Polytech Lille and the CSTC, they explored the limits of what could be done in terms of overlapping during the extrusion process as well as gain a better idea of what could be feasible for local slopes in their geometry and the effects/parameters/possibilities of nonplanar printing.

Interreg NWE CIRMAP - Workshop - December 2021 - ENSAPL_Polytech Lille

ENSAPL and Polytech Lille, in the framework of the CIRMAP project, organized a Workshop from 1 to 3 December 2021 in Lille, in collaboration with ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe and University of Liège. The purpose was to design and manufacture the first prototypes of urban furniture using 3D printing technology, with recycled materials. The shapes were printed using a cementitious ink formulation that was previously tested at the ARMINES/IMT Nord Europe research laboratory. Some of these prototypes will subsequently be used to produce the final furniture which will be installed in the place in front of the Douai Conservatory. To commemorate a great orchestra conductor: Georges PRÊTRE. The optimisation and design of the shapes - developed by the students of ENSAPL - will reduce the overall quantity of mortar and the use of local recycled sand will reduce the depletion of natural resources and avoid landfill. The workshop showed the successful collaboration between the different partners of CIRMAP!

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