ITEG: Integrating Tidal energy into the European Grid

Project Summary

ITEG will develop and validate an integrated tidal energy and hydrogen production solution for clean energy generation to be demonstrated in Orkney. The project addresses energy related carbon emissions in North West Europe and will tackle grid export limitations faced in remote communities.

Led by the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, the ITEG project brings together partners from across the UK, France, Belgium and the Netherlands and will adopt three low carbon technologies (tidal turbine, electrolyser and Energy Management System)

The cost of pre-commercial demonstration for ocean energy is high and investors are reluctant to invest until the technology has been proven in the sea at scale. ITEG sets out to drive down these costs through the development of an integrated hydrogen production solution.

The integrated solution combines Orbital's next generation 2 MW floating tidal energy converter, the Orbital O2, with EMEC's 670 kW electrolyser and an onshore energy management system (EMS) at EMEC's onshore hydrogen production site on the Orkney island of Eday.

Initially due to complete in December 2022, ITEG received an approved project modification which will see the project run until September 2023.

In a context of global supply chain issues, the 0.5 MW hydrogen electrolyser  initially scoped for ITEG could not be delivered by partner Elogen within the timeframe of the project. Elogen remains an active partner within the consortium and, as such, will support the production of valuable documentation on topics including lessons learned during manufacture, technological advances and scalability of electrolysers.

The updated combined tidal and hydrogen solution will use power generated by the Orbital O2, which was deployed at the Fall of Warness in 2021, to demonstrate hydrogen production from tidal energy using EMEC’s 670kW electrolyser with a smart onshore energy management system (EMS).

A recent vanadium flow battery installation on EMEC’s site will also be incorporated into the demonstration ‘to smooth’ the tidal power output and optimise hydrogen production.

The EMS system will enable EMEC to control whether the tidal power generated is fed into the national grid, directly into the electrolyser to produce hydrogen or into the battery to be stored and used at a later date.  

Project objectives

  • Develop and validate an integrated tidal energy and hydrogen production solution for clean energy generation in remote areas
  • Open new market opportunities for the ocean energy sector through hydrogen production and energy storage
  • Optimise the EMS and fast-track a clean energy generation, management and storage solution towards commercialisation 
  • Build a roadmap to support the replication of the integrated solution in other remote, grid restricted areas

The following graphic shows how the three low carbon technologies will form an integrated hydrogen production solution;

Orbital O2 2MW tidal turbine animation 

ITEG Consortium in Oostende, October 2019 (Credit University of Ghent)


Hero image at top of web page: Orbital O2 Orkney arrival (Credit Orbital)

ITEG project leaflet download

Project Partners

Lead partner

Organisation Address Email Website
European Marine Energy Centre 1 Old Academy Business Center
United Kingdom
Name Contact Name Email Country
Agence de Développement pour la Normandie Auriane Mathieu France
Orbital Marine Power James Murray United Kingdom
Energy Valley Patrick Cnubben Netherlands
Université de Caen Normandie Hamid Gualous France
Université le Havre Normandie Brayima Dakyo France
Ghent University Dominique Dhont Belgium
Energy Systems Catapult Richard Halsey United Kingdom
Elogen Ian Williamson France
Smart Hydrogen Consulting


Orbital O2 exports clean power at EMEC

Posted on

Orbital Marine Power’s O2, the world’s most powerful tidal turbine, has commenced grid connected power generation at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney. The innovative, floating turbine is anchored in the Fall of Warness where a subsea cable connects the 2MW offshore unit to the local onshore electricity network. Read More


ITEG webinar | Sector coupling & scaling for widescale hydrogen roll out

, Virtual (Zoom)

Join us for the third webinar in the ITEG series where we will be discussing the need for sector coupling to enable large scale roll out of clean hydrogen and realise the benefits of a wide scale hydrogen ecosystem. This webinar will feature speakers from Elogen, Energy Systems Catapult, SSE and the Port of Rotterdam. ITEG (Integrating Tidal Energy into the European Grid) is funded by the Interreg North-West Europe programme. For more information on the project, please visit:
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LESSIN webinar: The Benefits of an Integrated Approach to Energy for Rural and Island Communities in Scotland

, Virtual

Local Energy Systems Scottish Industry Network (LESSIN) is a cluster-building initiative which brings together manufacturers, project developers, technology companies, innovation support organisations, knowledge communities, and investors to cultivate the low carbon ecosystem in Scotland, and beyond. LESSIN is led by Energy Systems Catapult in collaboration with the Energy Technology Partnership (ETP), and on behalf of Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise. ​The project is part-funded by the 2014–2020 European Structural and Investment Fund. Supported by LESSIN’s new online collaboration platform, Energy Systems Catapult, Energy Technology Partnership and other innovation support organisations are working with Scottish industry to identify challenges and opportunities in delivering Local Energy Systems.
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ITEG Webinar Series: The Importance of Tidal Energy in a Clean Hydrogen Economy

, Online/Zoom

You are invited to join us for the first virtual event in the 4 part ITEG webinar series on 19 October 10:00 - 11:30 (BST). In this first webinar, we’ll discuss the important contribution that tidal energy can bring to achieving global carbon emission reduction targets. Speakers will discuss the latest tidal innovations under development and how integration with hydrogen production could open up new market opportunities for the ocean energy sector. The webinar will also share insight from the ITEG project: an integrated tidal energy and hydrogen production solution for clean energy generation to be demonstrated in Orkney.
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Wind Meets Gas: The North Sea Energy Issue and Connecting Hydrogen Valleys

, Groningen

Theme of the day: Hydrogen Valleys connected     The symposium experts will discuss the various regionally Hydrogen Valley initiatives that are developing through-out European Union and elsewhere. What do the various initiatives have in common and where do they differ? In addition, it will be discussed how duplication of effort and undue competition can be prevented and how instead synergies can be achieved by intensifying collaboration. Many representatives of Hydrogen Valleys and involved stakeholders will share their hands-on experiences, seek for modalities to align mutual interest and to create lasting cross-border alliances.
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International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS) 2021

, Virtual/Online

NTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HYDROGEN SAFETY 2021 “Safe Hydrogen for Net Zero” The Scottish Government and IA HySafe invite you to take part in ICHS2021 which will be about “Safe Hydrogen for Net Zero”. The first eight ICHS biennial conferences from 2005 to 2019 attracted experts from all over the world, and provided an open platform for the presentation and discussion of new findings, information and data on hydrogen safety – from basic research to applied development and from good practice to standardisation and regulatory issues. This further reinforces Scotland as one of the leading locations for deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell solutions into developing low carbon energy systems. Highlights include the expanding hydrogen bus fleet in Aberdeen and along with many other innovative projects in locations such as Fife, the Western Isles, and the Orkney Islands. These projects are leading the way with a ‘learning by doing’ approach, and are willing to share best practice and experience. All contributions to ICHS2021 will be evaluated for their scientific content and relevance to the wider uptake and deployment of safe hydrogen as part of the transition to a low carbon energy system.
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Seanergy 2021

, Nantes, France

Seanergy, the international forum dedicated to Offshore Renewable Energy, gathers each year around 200 exhibitors and more than 3000 international actors of the sector (politics, ordering institutions (energy operators and industrials), technological experts, NGOs, researchers, investors, and subcontractors).
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World Hydrogen Technology Conference 2021

, Virtual

At WHTC 2021, local and international attendees have the opportunity to present their technical findings and advancements in hydrogen and fuel cells, as well as participate in f-cell+HFC, the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Event for marketing and networking. WHTC is hosted by the Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (CHFCA), under the auspices of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE). WHTC together with f-cell+HFC join two important worlds: innovative technologies and scientific research with international markets and business cases. The convention will see the leaders of the hydrogen sector of the clean energy transition creating, discussing and developing next steps, now that the Canadian Hydrogen Strategy and others worldwide have been announced. This year’s event takes place online – a first for WHTC – and offers three days of live scientific and market-oriented activities, including plenaries, seminars, technical sessions, poster and oral presentations, and an international Networking Hub.
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Deliverable D.I: 1.1.1 | Assessment of water supply options and impact of using seawater on the design of electrolysers to be sited on Eday (July 2019)

LT.1.1: Roadmap Study for Tidal Generation with Electrolysis (August 2022)

LT1.2: Business Case for Tidal Generation with Electrolysis (August 2023)

LT.2.2: Social Acceptance Study (December 2022)

LT.2.3: Opportunities for Roll-Out of Tidal Generation with Electrolysis Across North West Europe Benefits, Impacts, Configuration and Potential Sites for Maximum Value (August 2022)

LT.4.2: Whole Energy System Analysis: Long Term Impacts on the Orkney Energy System (April 2023)

LT.4.3: Hydrogen Handling and Logistics: challenges and opportunities in a remote archipelago (August 2022)

LT.4.4: Energy Management System Control Strategy to Optimise Whole System Benefits of the ITEG Technologies (July 2023)

LT.4.5: Benefits of Tidal Power and Electrolysis (November 2022)

T1.3.3: Energy Management System Recommendations (July 2023)

ETIP Ocean | Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda for Ocean Energy 2020

M. R. Barakat, B.T. Ighil, H. Gualous, and D. Hissel, “Modeling of a Hybrid Marine Current- Hydrogen Active Power Generation System.”

A paper by M. R. Barakat, B.T. Ighil, H. Gualous, and D. Hissel published in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Vol 44, Issue 19, pp. 9621-35, April 2019

https: // j.ijhydene.2018.10.020


“This paper presents the modeling and the simulation of a hybrid marine current-hydrogen power generation system. The marine current power generation system consists of a fixed pitch marine current turbine directly coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The generator is connected to a DC link capacitor via a controlled rectifier, which has two modes of operation. The first mode is the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by using torque control when the generator runs below the rated speed. The second mode is the power limitation (at the rated value) when the generator runs above the nominal speed. The generated power is transferred from the DC-link to the load via an inverter to run the system in a stand-alone operation mode. An energy storage system must cover the difference between the generation and the consumption for this scheme. The hydrogen, compared with the different energy storage systems, exhibits characteristics more applicable for marine current power generation systems. When the generated power is higher than the load requirements, a Megawatt-scale proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer consumes the surplus energy for hydrogen generation. The generated hydrogen is stored in tanks to feed a PEM fuel cell system to generate power in case of shortage. Based on this topology and operation procedure, the overall system is called an active power generation system. The MW scale PEM electrolyzer model is presented based on state of the art and the literature of different scales PEM electrolyzer system modeling”.

M. R. Barakat, B.T. Ighil, H. Gualous, and D. Hissel, “JADE Based Multi-Agent Decentralized Energy Management System of a hybrid Marine-Hydrogen Power Generation System.”

Oral presentation in Proceedings of ELECTRIMACS 2019, the 13th international conference of the IMACS TC1 Committee Salerno, Italy, from 21st-23rd May 2019. Also featured in book ELECTRIMACS 2019 edited by Springer

Link to conference:

Presentation published in ELECTRIMACS 2019 edited by Springer, pp.245-257: https://DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-56970-9_19


“This paper presents the decentralized JADE (Java Agent Development Environment) based Multi-Agent System (MAS) oriented to the energy management and balance of the hybrid marine-hydrogen power generation system. The proposed hybrid marine-hydrogen system consists of a fixed pitch direct drive tidal turbine, a MegaWatt (MW) scale proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, and fuel cell and a Li-ion battery stack. The different components are coupled together on a DC-link via different topologies of power electronics converters for feeding a residential load as isolated system architecture. The MW scale electrolyzer and fuel cell systems represent the main elements of the hydrogen energy storage system. An isolated mode of operation is programmed to evaluate the MAS capability of energy management and balance considering the marine current intermittency and the demand-side variations. The proposed energy management system considers the safe operations of the electrolyzers, fuel cell and battery by considering their constraints and dynamics.”

A. Alex, R. Petrone, B. Tala-Ighil, D. Bozalakov, L. Vandevelde, H. Gualous, Optimal techno-enviro-economic analysis of a hybrid grid connected tidal-wind-hydrogen energy system

Paper by A. Alex, R. Petrone, B. Tala-Ighil, D. Bozalakov, L. Vandevelde, H. Gualous published in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol 47, issue 86, pp. 36448-36464, 2022


“The study deals with the techno-enviro-economic aspects of hydrogen production using polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers powered by a hybrid grid-connected tidal-wind energy system. System modelling is presented initially. The energy management strategies for hydrogen production are then analysed as rule-based approach and as optimised approach. An objective function to maximise the operating profit under optimal system operation is formulated considering the variable energy costs, capital and maintenance expenditure, and real system constraints. A comprehensive cost analysis of the system is obtained by comparing two different optimisation approaches based on fixed cost and levelised cost factors, respectively. Towards reaching this goal, the use of mixed integer genetic algorithm optimisation is investigated. The operation of electrolyser in terms of its different operating modes, namely stop, running, and stand-by is presented. The dynamic optimisation of an electrolyser capable of working at up to twice its nominal rating for a limited duration is also analysed in the study. The results of the optimisation approach are 41.5% and 47% higher than the rule-based approach in terms of the annualised profit and carbon emission savings, respectively. In addition, the recurrent switching of electrolyser unit operating modes is avoided with the optimisation approach, reducing the associated energy consumption of about 27.2 MWh annually. The proposed model can be used as a generic tool for hydrogen production analysis under different contexts and it is especially applicable in high green energy potential sites with constrained grid facilities.”

M. R. Barakat, B.T. Ighil, H. Gualous, and D. Hissel, “Energy Management of a Hybrid Tidal Turbine-Hydrogen Micro-Grid: Losses Minimization Strategy.”

Oral presentation at the 8th International Conference on “Fundamentals & Development of Fuel Cells” held in Nantes, France, from February 12th to February 14th, 2019. Session 6c: Hydrogen Systems: Design, Energy Management System and Converters 


Link to presentation here.

A. Alex, R. Petrone, H. Obeid, B. Tala-Ighil, L. Vandevelde, H. Gualous, ITEG - Tidal energy integration with hydrogen production: a case study for energy management optimisation

Poster presented at Seanergy 2021, Nantes, France

Poster presented at Seanergy 2021, Nantes, France:

View poster here.

A. Alex, R. Petrone, B. Tala-Ighil, H. Obeid, H. Gualous and L. Vandevelde, Electrolytic hydrogen production from tidal energy: A technical and economic perspective.

Poster selected for presentation at EWETEC 2021, Plymouth, UK, 2021

Poster on 'Electrolytic hydrogen production from tidal energy: A technical and economic perspective.' presented at EWTEC 2021, Plymouth UK:

View poster here.

Ansu Alex, Tidal stream energy integration with green hydrogen production energy management and system optimization

Thesis produced by Ansu Alex and published by the University of Caen Normandie 2022.

Thesis produced by Ansu Alex and published by the University of Caen Normandie 2022.

View here

To cite: Ansu Alex. Tidal stream energy integration with green hydrogen production : energy management and
system optimisation. Electric power. Normandie Université, 2022. English. ffNNT : 2022NORMC216ff.

Dimitar Bozalakov, Kaveh Dadkhah, Lieven Vandevelde, ITEG: INTEGRATING TIDAL ENERGY INTO THE EUROPEAN GRID

Academic poster published in 2019

Available to view on Research Gate

Ahmed AL AMERI, Abdoulaye KOITA, Alireza PAYMAN, Mamadou Baïlo CAMARA, Brayima DAKYO, “EMR modelling of tidal turbines integrated into Orkney grid”

Paper published in Electric Power Systems Research, Volume 201, 2021

View here:



The main challenges for renewable energy integration in electrical grid system are their variability and prediction. Tidal renewable energy is considered low variability in comparison to wind energy generation and due to tides regular periodicity, it is often quoted as predictable. This paper presents the modeling of Orkney's distribution network with the integration of tidal energy. This multi-physics model is based on the graphical formalism tool, Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). This tool has been used to analyze the Tidal energy conversion (TEC) system based on the behavior of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). The daily, monthly and yearly variations of marine water speed in Orkney were observed. The EMR has been efficiently used in the representation of Orkney energy system integration of Orbital O2 tidal systems, and showing its effectiveness to adopt the control strategy. More precisely, the data of current water profile for 2009 has been chosen from 10 years big data to test the adopted deduced control technique. The methodology of this tool is described in details and the simulation results obtained in MATLAB environment are presented.

Ahmed AL AMERI, Alireza PAYMAN, Mamadou Baïlo CAMARA, Brayima DAKYO, “Control Strategy for Orbital O2 Tidal System Based on EMR model”

Presentation at 14th International Conference of TC-Electrimacs (ELECTRIMACS2022), Nancy, France, 16-19 May 2022

Presentation at 14th International Conference of TC-Electrimacs (ELECTRIMACS2022), Nancy, France, 16-19 May 2022


Also published by Springer: 

Transition to Renewable Marine Energies Tidal arrays

Presentation by Brayima Dakyo at National seminar of Electronics, Electrical Energy and control, 13-14 March 2019, Compiègne, France. (in French).

View presentation slides here


Conference paper presented at International Conference for Hydrogen Safety (ICHS), Edinburgh, 2021

View paper here: 

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